Milestones in Human Rights in Nova Scotia
|Year||Human Rights Achievement|
|1804||Joseph Howe (December 1804 – June 1873) is born in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Howe gained early prominence as a defender of freedom of the press. Howe later became instrumental in helping Nova Scotia become the first British colony to win responsible government in 1848. Today, Howe is considered one of Nova Scotia's greatest and most-loved politicians.|
|1918||The Nova Scotia Franchise Act gives women the right to vote in Nova Scotia's provincial elections. The effects of Manitoba's decision to grant women the vote ripple all the way to the East. This right to vote was later accorded to visible minorities (1950’s) and Aboriginal peoples (1960’s).|
|1948||The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is signed by the United Nations members. Canadian John Humphrey plays a large role in drafting the declaration, and Canada is among the signing nations.|
|The 1950s||Changes begin to be made in gender rights and racial segregation. The work in this era lays the foundation for the civil rights era (the '60s).|
|1953||Nova Scotia adopts fair employment legislation.|
|1954||Legal segregation of Nova Scotia schools ends.|
|1955||The Fair Employment Practices Act which prohibits discrimination in regard to employment and membership in trade unions because of race, religion, creed, color, national or ethnic origin, comes into effect.|
|1956||Equal pay legislation is enacted provincially and federally. The law declared women should not be paid less than men because of their gender. This was legislated to ensure female employees received equal pay for equal work in the workplace.|
|1959||In Nova Scotia, the Fair Accommodations Act makes discrimination because of race, creed, colour, or nationality illegal. Restaurants, hotels, and other facilities open to the public can no longer refuse to serve someone on the basis of any of these grounds.|
|1960||Aboriginal people get the vote.|
The '60s is a period of social unrest and significant social, economic and political development, characterized as the climax of a period of social movement activism in Canada.
The Halifax Advisory Committee on Human Relations is created. This is in addition to a human rights committee with the Halifax District Labour Council and the Cape Breton Labour Council.
An Interdepartmental Committee on Human Rights is also established within the Nova Scotia government.
|1963||Nova Scotia passes its first Human Rights Act. The Act consolidates the province's human rights legislation into one Act. This Act would be enforced by a Human Rights Commission as of 1967.|
|1967||The government of Nova Scotia establishes the Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission (NSHRC) in 1967. Its explicit purpose is to challenge long-standing patterns of discrimination on racial, religious and ethnic grounds.|
|1977||The Status of Women Act is passed and Canadian Human Rights Act is legislated. This is a year after the adoption of the International Bill of Rights.|
|The 1980s||In this era, for the first time emphasis is placed on training for teachers. A promise is made to increase emphasis on cross-cultural training for teachers, administrators and school staff.|
|1981||Proclamation-signing ceremony: Premier John Buchanan marks the 33rd anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights by declaring December 10 Human Rights Day in Nova Scotia.|
Source of Income becomes a protected characteristic under the Nova Scotian Human Rights Act.
Charter of Rights and Freedoms is also added to the repatriated constitution. The Charter has had an immense impact on the social and political life of Canada, becoming useful in public policy-making through decisions on issues such as gay marriage, health care, pay equity and trade union rights
|1984||Publishing of The Abella Report, which coins the term Employment Equity to describe the Canadian approach to dealing with employment disadvantage. It confirms that almost a quarter-century of human rights law had helped some people, but many systemic barriers had not changed.|
|1984-1985||Human Rights Commission conducts public awareness initiatives. School-age children are taught fundamental tenets of fairness, respect, and justice, building firm foundations for adulthood.|
|1986||Mental Disability Act and The Canadian Human Rights Act undergo revisions, adding to the characteristics protection against discrimination on the basis of mental disability.|
The Nova Scotian Pay Equity Act comes into force and regulates the public sector.
Blind Persons’ Rights Act is enacted, specifically articulating the duty to accommodate persons who are blind and their guide dogs.
The '90s place greater emphasis on the importance of more fair and diverse education and workplaces.
The Nova Scotia Human Rights Act undergoes major revisions, adding the protected characteristics:
Aboriginal Origin, Age, Family Status (the status of being in a parent and child relationship), Irrational Fear of Contracting an Illness (for example, to adequately protect people living with HIV/AIDS), Marital Status, Political Affiliation, Sex, Pregnancy, Sexual Harassment, Sex (Sexual Orientation).
|1992||In a speech to the Halifax Rotary Club, the NSHRC Executive Director emphasizes the role of public education in presenting strategies for attitudinal and behavioural change.|
|1993||The College de l’Acadie offers French certificate and diploma programs in a post-secondary setting to the Acadian and Francophone regions of the province.|
|1994||Simon Thwaites, a soldier, is honorably discharged from the Canadian Armed Forces in 1994 because he is a homosexual and HIV carrier. Simon Thwaites was compensated for his wrongful dismissal from the Canadian Armed Forces.|
|1996||Sexual orientation is added as a ground for discrimination in the Canadian Human Rights Act.|
The Tripartite Agreement (1994) affirms the right of Mi’kmaq jurisdiction over on-reserve education in Nova Scotia, resulting in schools on reserves operating under the control of local bands. The Council on Mi’kmaq Education is created and a Mi’kmaq representative is appointed to each regional school board.
It is the first such agreement in Canada to transfer jurisdiction for education from the federal government of Canada to First Nations communities. Only one year later the Eskasoni High Tech High School opens.
|1998||The Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission obtains a regulation enhancing its enforcement powers by allowing the Human Rights Commission to register Board of Inquiry monetary orders with the Supreme Court.|
|1999||The Marshall decision of the Supreme Court of Canada affirms treaty rights of Mi’kmaq to fish commercially.|
A shift from an industrial/manufacturing age into a technological/information age is reflected in Nova Scotia education and industry statistics; in 2006, 67% of Halifax residents held trade, college or university qualifications.
This high percentage of educated people places Halifax among the top five cities in Canada (re education). The shift to a technological age and the associated shift in skill set required, as well as the rise in immigration to Nova Scotia. emphasizes the need for employers to embrace diverse workplaces in an ever-evolving society.
|2001||June 8 - Eskasoni’s Tuma Young becomes the first Mi’kmaq-speaking lawyer to be called to the Nova Scotia Bar.|
|2005||Canada is the fourth country to recognize the right of same-sex couples to marry.|
|2007||The Commission hosts an Aboriginal Forum to learn about the progress and concerns of First Nations people in the province. This leads to the development of an Aboriginal strategy for handling human rights issues.|
A number of amendments are made to the Nova Scotian Human rights Act.
|2009||July 1, 2009 - mandatory retirement is eliminated and no longer permitted under the Act.|
|2012||December 6, 2012 - Amendments on gender identity and gender expression are passed as law and added to the Nova Scotia Human Rights Act to protect the rights of trans and gender diverse people.|
|Present day||Commemoration of special events such as International Human Rights Day and International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination continues as important opportunities to promote human rights, build partnerships and educate members of society on the importance of upholding the principles of fairness, equality and dignity for all.|